Electric vehicles are a type of vehicle that needs an electric motor for their propulsion. They may be powered by self-contained or off-vehicle battery sources.
Basic facts of electric vehicles (1)
Electric vehicles run through electricity. This electricity can be taken in two ways.Off-vehicle sources are one way to obtain electricity. Some vehicles contain built-in electricity sources such as fuel cells, solar panels, or a battery. Electric vehicles include electric spacecraft, electric aircraft, underwater and surface vessels, rail vehicles, and road vehicles.
Types of electric vehicles
- Ground vehicles
- Pure electric vehicles
A pure electric vehicle is also known as an all-electric vehicle. It is powered with the help of electric motors. These electricity sources maybe fuel cells, solar panels, or a battery.
- Hybrid electric vehicles
This vehicle is a hybrid or electric propulsion system and internal combustion system. Electric cars are the most commonly used EVs. Regenerative brakes are one of the advanced technologies in HEVs that converts kinetic energy into electrical energy. HEVs contain a start-stop system in which the engine works only when needed.
- Plug-in electrical vehicle
PEV is another type of EV that runs with the help of an external electric source, for example, a wall socket. It comes with a rechargeable batterythat helps to drive the car’s wheels. PEVs include plug-in hybrid vehicles, battery electric vehicles, and electric vehicle conversions of internal combustion engine vehicles and hybrid electric vehicles.
- Range-extended electric vehicles
REEVs are a subcategory of EVs that are powered by a plug-in battery and an electric motor. An additional combustion engine is not the primary power source but supplements the charging of the battery.
- On- and off-road EVs
On-road EVs are forklifts, milk floats, golf carts, neighborhood electric vehicles, personal transporters, electric scooters and motorcycles, electric bicycles, electric trucks, battery-electric buses, electric buses, electric trolleybuses, and electric cars. Off-road EVs are electric tractors and all-terrain vehicles.
- Railborne EVs
Electric trains do not need to carry heavy and large batteries for propulsion and easily get powered through electrified overhead lines and third rails. Electric rapid transit, electric light rail systems, electric trams, electric multiple units, and electric locomotives are all commonly used especially in Asia and Europe. Elimination of large batteries and heavy combustion engines gives a remarkable power-to-weight ratio to electric trains.
- Space rover vehicles
Astronauts have used unmanned and manned vehicles to explore planets and the moon in the solar system. In 1971 and 1972, astronauts went on the Apollo program’s mission by Lunar Roving Vehicles that are powered by silver oxide batteries. Unmanned rovers that are powered by solar sources have explored the Mars and Moon.
- Airborne EVs
Several unmanned and manned aerial vehicles are currently flying. Experimentation on electrically-powered aircraft has remained a great deal since the establishment of aviation.
- Seaborne EVs
In the 20th century, electric boats became popular. The interest in marine transportation increased when a vast range of solar cell-based sailboats came into the market.Instead of conventional diesel engines, electric motors are used in a sailboat. Submarines use sterling engines, fuel cells, nuclear power, or batteries to run propellers driven by an electric motor.
- Electrically powered spacecraft
There is a long history of usage of electric power in spacecraft. Spacecraft may get power from nuclear sources, solar panels, and batteries. In the modern era, electric methods to propel a spacecraft are the Field Emission electric propulsion, the Hall effect thruster, the electrostatic ion thruster, and thearcjet rocket.
Top luxurious electric vehicles (2)
- Porsche Taycan
- It has incredible acceleration. It reaches0-62 mph in just 2.4 seconds.
- It uses an 800-V system and a two-speed transmission.
- It has a very charging time. 5%-80% charging is done in just 22 minutes.
- Turbo S is the most powerful and sporty version of Taycan and can reach 162 mph.
- Price: its lowest price is $150,900.
- Tesla Model S Plaid
- Model S is the newest version of Tesla.
- Its range is two times more than the range of any high-end electric car. It can cover 520 miles when fully charged.
- It possesses a remarkable acceleration. It reaches 60 mph within 2 seconds. The claimed highest speed of Model S plaid is 200 mph.
- Price: its lowest price in the market is $139,990 at the time of writing this article.
- BMW i4
- In the BMW line-up, the electrified BMW i4 is a new addition. It is a small-sized EV but no way lesser than any large-sized EV.
- It has a subtle, slim facade and low slung doors.
- It features 372 miles driving range, an 80 kWh battery pack, and 530 horsepower.
- It reaches 62 mph in 4 seconds.
- Price: its initial price is $50,000.
- BMW iX3
- In the lineup of BMW, iX3 is a mid-sized EV. This model demonstrates that BMW tried to provide luxury components and impressive stats in a utilitarian size.
- This new model includes new aerodynamic wheels.
- It features a rapid charging and driving range of 249 miles.
- It reaches 60 mph in 4.8 seconds.
- The claimed highest speed of this model is 124 mph.
- Price: its initial price is $67000.
- Tesla Model X
- It is an ultra-utilitarian SUV, comes with luxurious details and practical features.
- It features a spacious interior, seating for up to 7 passengers, a long-range, and a high-tech cabin.
- It has a remarkable acceleration, reaching 60 mph in just 2.7 seconds.
- The top speed it attains is 155 mph
- Price: its lowest price is $79990.
- It is considered best for off-road rides.
- It shares multiple features with other versions of Rivian.
- It is a powerful EV pickup, containing a battery of three different sizes; 180, 135, and 105 kWh.
- 180 kWh battery pack claims 410 mph driving range.
- It reaches 60 mph in 3 seconds byproducing 600 hpand can attain the highest speed of 125 mph.
- In comparison to Bollinger B1, R1S has a larger driving range.
- Price: its lowest price is $72500.